On June 12th, 1970, Pittsburgh Pirates pitcher Dock Ellis threw a no-hitter against the San Diego Padres while heavily under the influence of LSD. So sayeth his Wikipedia page, Ellis "had been visiting friends in Los Angeles and was still high when his girlfriend told him he had to pitch a game against the San Diego Padres that night. Ellis boarded a shuttle flight to the ballpark, took some amphetamines to mitigate the effects of the acid, and then threw a no-hitter despite not being able to feel the ball or clearly see the batter or catcher. According to Ellis, catcher Jerry May wore reflective tape on his fingers, which helped Ellis to see his target."
And there's a nice timeline of recreational drug use and professional sports here.